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According to NKS Chapter 9, the basis for quantum mechanics is a Fredkin-Wolfram information process. This information process makes use of alternate universes. How might these alternate universes cause paradigm-breaking photons to escape from black holes? If paradigm-breaking photons exist, then how do they fit into valid theoretical physics?

If the Fredkin Finite Nature Hypothesis is correct, then how can M-theory (or string theory) accommodate this hypothesis? A lattice gauge theorist first “Wick rotates” spacetime into Euclidean space and then replaces spacetime with a discrete lattice. This lattice has equally spaced lattice points with quark fields defined at the lattice points. The challenge is find some lattice gauge model that successfully models black holes and the paradigm-breaking photons that escape from them.

When matter falls through a black hole’s event horizon, then do fuzzball states capture the quantum information of the matter’s charge distribution? If a superheavy magnetic monopole transiently appears in a black hole boundary, then does an antimatter partner to the monopole almost immediately annihilate both itself and the monopole?

In 2002 C.E., Mathur and Lunin suggested that the singularity model of a black hole is incorrect; instead, a black hole is a fuzzball sphere with a definite volume based upon strings. According to Mathur and Lunin’s fuzzball theory of black holes, a fuzzball becomes less dense as it mass increases due to fractional tension. In the process called “fractional tension,” as matter falls through the event horizon of a black hole, strings fuse together to store the additional quantum information from the additional matter.

For an elementary review of black holes in string theory, see Samir D. Mathur’s “The quantum structure of black holes.” http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0510180

Consider 3 hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1. Near the boundary of a Mathur-Lunin fuzzball, there is a nonzero probability that a ‘t Hooft-Polyakov monopole encounters its antimatter partner and undergoes annihilation. This annihilation is the physical basis of paradigm-breaking photons.

Hypothesis 2. Appearances of ‘t Hooft-Polyakov monopoles and their antimatter partners are the result of a physical process modeled by an anomalous Ward-Takahashi identify for monopoles. The anomaly is a chiral anomaly caused by alternate universes.

Hypothesis 3. The Fredkin Finite Nature Hypothesis is correct so that M-theory is an approximation to some optimal lattice gauge/gravity correspondence model that is a better approximation than M-theory itself.

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